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terrestrial ecosystem problems

Ecosystems 1:345–351, Van den Bos RM (2003) Restoration of former wetlands in the Netherlands; effect on the balance between CO, Van den Pol-van Dasselaar A, Van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (1999) Determinants of spatial variability of methane emissions from wet grasslands on peat soil. Using the SRES high A1Fi scenario (Nakićenović and Swart 2000), a number of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulated increasing NPP over most of the North Sea region by the end of the century (Sitch et al. 2002; Tamis et al. UniVeJt6. 2013). Concern about microplastics (plastic particles <5 mm) polluting different environmental compartments is mounting. 2012, and references therein). J Appl Entomol 136:321‒331, Schuch S, Wesche K, Schaefer M (2012b) Long-term decline in the abundance of leafhoppers and planthoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) in Central European protected dry grasslands. Barros, D.J. Nutrient pollution is one of America's most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems, and is caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the air and water. Nat Clim Change 3:152–155, Gallego-Sala A, Clark J, House J, Orr H, Prentice IC, Smith P, Farewell T, Chapman S (2010) Bioclimatic envelope model of climate change impacts on blanket peatland distribution in Great Britain. In ‘b’, the x axis shows the slope of a linear regression of median laying date against mean temperature from 16 April to 15 May. Ecol Lett 7:565–573, Tallis JH (1985) Mass movement and erosion of a Southern Pennine blanket peat. 2000; Berendse et al. Furthermore, dispersal is rarely simulated explicitly, and dispersal projections are uncertain, for example, because of large uncertainties in projected wind speeds (Bullock et al. Higher N2O emissions can also be expected with lower peatland water levels (Martikainen et al. Körner et al. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 21:88‒99, Settele J, Scholes R, Betts R, Bunn S, Leadley P, Nepstad D, Overpeck JT, Taboada MA (2014) Terrestrial and inland water systems. 2005), biodiversity in the North Sea region could even increase. For the SRES A1 scenario (Nakićenović and Swart 2000) and the HadCM3 climate model, for example, Thuiller et al. However, these projections are based on average results from a number of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) and because not all models agree in terms of the sign of the change in summer precipitation for different parts of the North Sea region, these projections of future water availability during the main growing season contain uncertainties (see Chap. 1998, Postel 1999, Rosegrant et al. Most likely, these corridors would follow existing waterways. This has resulted in the depletion of glaciers which in turn are responsible for the increasing sea level. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the American Pika as Threatened or Endangered. The initial microplastics research focused on marine and aquatic ecosystems, but recently it has begun to involve terrestrial systems. Practice: Human impact on ecosystems. Observational and experimental evidence for floristic changes in heathlands that can be clearly attributed to climate change is weak; for example, Werkman et al. Nature 370:47‒49, Daulat WE, Clymo RS (1998) Effects of temperature and water table on the efflux of methane from peatland surface cores. Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. Nature 415:861‒862, Urban NR, Bayley SE, Eisenreich SJ (1989) Export of dissolved organic carbon and acidity from peatlands. Limpens et al. Glob Change Biol 9:152–160, Nakićenović N, Swart R (eds) (2000) Special report on emission scenarios. Nature 430:195–198, Fridley JD, Grime JP, Askew AP, Moser B, Stevens CJ (2011) Soil heterogeneity buffers community response to climate change in species-rich grassland. The degree to which three butterfly species have changed their ranges (a–c, without subsampling) and are lagging behind current climate in Britain (d–f; 10-km grid resolution). Drained and degraded peatlands are hotspots of greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. In the eastern British fenlands, compaction and peat oxidation has resulted in up to 4 m of subsidence in 150 years (Godwin 1978). Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. 2010; Saino et al. 2008). 2008), whereas the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM showed decreased vegetation carbon storage especially in the southern part (Sitch et al. Dissolved organic matter affects ecosystem nutrient availability (Carpenter et al. Besides their function as a sink for atmospheric carbon, the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nutrients from terrestrial ecosystems is probably the most significant process directly affecting the North Sea system. Population trend is the slope of the regression of the log number of breeding pairs against year. 1995) and DOC export (Freeman et al. Due to conversion into cropland, and the cessation and intensification of agricultural practices, grasslands underwent fundamental change during the 20th century (Bullock et al. Global Biogeochem Cy 21,1:GB1007, Svenning JC, Skov F (2004) Limited filling of the potential range in European tree species.

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